The BIEN 4.2 database differs from BIEN 4.1 in two major respects:
- GBIF content has been refreshed with a download of Kingdom Plantae from 16 November 2020.
- Major validations have been updated as follows:
- TNRS (Taxonomic Name Resolution Service). Taxonomic database updated. See https://tnrs.biendata.org/sources/. Resolves standard taxon names name from verbatim submitted names.
- GNRS (Geographic Name Resolution Service). Reference database refactored and content updated to include GADM political divisions names, in addition to the previously-included Geonames. Resolves standard political division name from verbatim submitted names.
- GVS (Geocoordinate Validation Service). This new service combines the previous PDGS (Political Division Geovalidation Service) and CDS (Centroid Detection Service) with additional validations, providing a single-point-of-access geocoordinate error detection service. Generates validation flags is_in_country, is_in_state_province and is_in_county, is_invalid_latlong, is_centroid, plus additional quantitative assessments of coordinate error and precision and proximity to known centroids.
- NSR (Native Species Resolver). Database updated to include global distribution information from Kew's Plants of the World Online.
- CODS (Cultivated Observation Detection Service). Flags observations possibly or likely representing individual cultivated plants using two algorithms: (1) Proximity to locations of herbaria or botanical gardens, and (2) keywords or phrases in specimen and locality descriptions indicating cultivation. A completely rebuilt port to PostgreSQL/PostGIS of an earlier prototype.